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The life of molecules on the edge

DR EMILIA NOWAK, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Molecules feel the most comfortable when surrounded by their own kind. The presence of different kinds of molecules causes certain tension. I will show you the fascinating ways to harness this naturally occurring tension, intelligent manipulation of the disliking molecules, and finally the importance of this phenomena in our everyday life.

In my cutting edge research, I strive to understand and control this tension in order to reduce the energy required in various processes, for example in molecules encapsulation.

The behaviour of molecules at the surface and the understanding and their control enables novel applications in advanced materials, nanomedicine, energy, environmental technologies, catalysis, and food. Real-life application of this type of technology is smart medicine that delivers the drug to only the “ill” cell or functional food that delivers the bioactive substance (e.g. SCFA) to colon and by doing so prevent the colon cancer.

How your DNA makes you, you

DR OLIN SALINDER, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Recent technological advances have made it possible to figure out the sequence of all three billion basepairs in the human genome. Scientists have since used this data to understand ancestry, to predict health outcomes and even solve crimes.

Dr Olin Silander discussed how these technological advances in DNA sequencing came about, how they help us to understand human history and ancestry, and whether knowing your genome sequence actually helps to predict how you look, feel, and behave.

Coral reefs in a changing world

DR DAVID AGUIRRE, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Reef-building corals are a delicate, but remarkably productive association between a cnidarian (similar to a sea anemone) and a colony of single-celled algae called zooxanthellae. This mutually-beneficial relationship is the powerhouse fuelling the coral reefs we see in tropical seas around our planet. Yet, corals, and all the biodiversity they support, are under threat from climate change.

Increases in ocean temperature cause the zooxanthellae to become toxic to the cnidarian host, and the hosts evict the zooxanthellae. The only hope for corals is that they can adjust to the new regime or move to cooler locations further from the equator. In this talk Dr David Aguirre will discuss some of the ongoing work to better understand the potential for corals to endure or outrun climate change.

Life of Pi

Professor Rod Downey, Victoria University, Wellington

In this talk, Professor Downey, awarded the Rutherford Medal in 2018, will examine the history of how we began to understand the number pi over the last four millennia.
This is also the story of the development of a branch of modern mathematics called analysis; a story still being told today.

Predicting GDP using machine learning

DR TEO SUSNJAK, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on its own is not a very sexy topic, but trying to predict it using machine learning and data analysis might be!

Although often criticised as an economic measure, the problem that needs to be solved is not GDP’s relevance, but the ability to get quick up-to-date indicators of GDP in a relevant time frame. Information on what happened three months ago is of limited use.

We will look at the colourful history of GDP including criticisms and some clever global estimation strategies. Finally, our approach to building a real-time GDP predictor using machine learning will be outlined, together with its forecasting results from the last six months.

Ecology and infectious diseases: a mathematical perspective

PROF. MICK ROBERTS, MASSEY UNIVERSITY, AUCKLAND

If you push an ecosystem too far the rules change. Parasites have been described as the dark matter in ecosystems, always there but often overlooked. Ecosystems may change for many reasons, including human actions and invasion by pests or pathogens. As ecosystems change new infectious diseases may emerge, and existing infections may reappear or change their host range. Mathematical models are necessary to unravel the complicated interactions between ecology and the epidemiology of infectious diseases.

This is the story of a 27 year collaboration between New Zealand and the Netherlands, and how mathematics has been used to describe epidemics and pandemics.

The light fantastic: Dizzying interactions between light and matter

PROF. BILL WILLIAMS, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Nature provides fascinating examples of nanotechnology, creating functional entities from the bottom-up; from molecules to materials & devices. But this is not the nanotechnology of miniature submarines and nano-bots; it is that of molecular biology, the wet nanotechnology of biopolymers and their assemblies.

 

In order to take a trip down the rabbit hole of such exquisite molecular machinery scientists need not only to see but also to feel the nanoworld. Optical tweezers (OT), for which Arthur Askin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, are one of the exciting tools that can be used to apply and measure minute forces. The talk described how OT perform this remarkable task and our journey to implement them in order to stretch a single strand of DNA.

Through the looking glass: Host-parasite coevolution and sex

PROF CURT LIVELY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, US

Why do males exist? The most common answer is that males are needed for reproduction; but that is not true for many species of both plants and animals. Why, then, is the earth not dominated by clonally reproducing females? Surely cloning is a more efficient way to reproduce.

 

So why, in general, is there sex? The question has been raised by many prominent evolutionary biologists, including Darwin; but the answer remains elusive.

 

This talk will present 30-plus years of research on "why sex?”, highlighting the Red Queen Hypothesis, which posits that parasites select against successful clonal lineages, once they become common in the population.

Biological clocks - adjustable time-keeping makes for good health

Prof Aneta Stefanovska, Lancaster University, UK

Today, thanks to the advances in visual and imaging technologies, we can as easily see ourselves from the inside as on the outside. Yet, our body involves not only structures, but also functions. The majority of them are rhythmical. The most obvious one is perhaps the sleep-wake cycle, also known as circadian. But there are many other rhythms, operating on different time-scales, such as the beating of the heart, breathing, brain activity and metabolic activity. The body is an orchestra of irregular rhythms in which the key to good functioning lies in their coordination.

In this talk, Professor Stefanovska discussed technological advances in the monitoring of a variety of biological clocks and ways of modelling them mathematically. I will also introduce new physics that is being developed to describe the interactions between the rhythms and how this can improve our understanding of diseases such as dementia, malaria and melanoma, and facilitate their diagnosis and treatment.

Snake conservation in the Galapagos Islands

DR LUIS ORTIZ-CATEDRAL, Massey University

The Galapagos Islands hold a special place in the history of science thanks to their role in helping Charles Darwin formulate his ideas about evolution. More recently, these remote islands have taken centre stage in ecological research and conservation. In this lecture, Luis will talk about his research on Galapagos snakes, how a single 182-year old museum specimen holds the key to guide the largest ecological restoration project on these islands, and his mentorship programme to stimulate young Ecuadorians to pursue a career in conservation science.

Can you trust what you see? The magic of visual perception

Prof Oge Marques, Florida Atlantic University

This lecture presented a diverse collection of visual perception phenomena, challenging common knowledge of how well we detect, recognize, compare, measure, interpret, and make decisions upon the information that arrives at our brain through our eyes. It also explains the relationships between the latest developments in human vision research and emerging technologies, such as: self-driving cars, face recognition and other forms of biometrics, and virtual reality.

Demented yeast and obese flies: model organisms in biomedical research

PROF SEPP DIETER KOHLWEIN, UNIVERSITY OF GRAZ, AUSTRIA

What do obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and cancer have in common? Their causes root in an imbalance of highly complex mechanisms that control thousands of biochemical reactions in trillions of cells in the human body.

The complexity of these processes demands the use of ‘model organisms’ in biomedical research, such as yeast, fruit flies, or roundworms, to obtain a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms in healthy and diseased cells.

Virtual reality: how does it work and what does it mean?

Dr Daniel Playne

The main ideas behind Virtual Reality and the modern advancements in technology will be discussed, along with the major challenges still facing developers.

Sensual Mathematics

PROF. KIRSI PELTONEN, AALTO UNIVERSITY FINLAND

What are the possibilities for enhancing interaction between contemporary mathematics and arts? What will dialogue in different levels of education and research mean for society? This talk looks at the recent multidisciplinary activities challenging the traditions and communication of mathematics and arts that have taken place at Aalto University in Finland. These activities have provided a new type of platform to share the beauty of mathematics.  Many outcomes and byproducts of our up-to-date experiments are perfect for applications in digital technologies such as programming, CAD, 3D printing, virtual- and augmented reality. Some scenarios for the future development are presented.

Putting on the Squeeze: High-Pressure Physics and Chemistry

DR ELKE PAHL

We are put under pressure all the time - if not by us or others - our atmosphere does the job! All the air above us weighs us down. What happens to matter if we increase this pressure further? At pressures in the inner core of the earth where we find about 300 million times the atmospheric pressure, or at even higher pressures found inside stars?

Gases like oxygen and hydrogen eventually become metallic - conducting electric current. Come and see experiments to understand what pressure is, how it influences our life and get an insight into current research on materials under ultra-high pressure.

Games everywhere

professor thomas Pfeiffer

Game theory is the science of strategic decision-making. Having its roots in the analysis of parlour games like poker, it developed in the 1940’s into a full-fetched mathematical framework that proved extremely prolific in a number of scientific disciplines. Today, game theory is applied to everything from political problems, economics and human behaviour to the evolution of animals and the biochemistry of microbes. Even popular culture is full of references to game theory – just think of game shows like Golden Balls, or what The Joker does with the two ferries in The Dark Knight. In his lecture, Thomas will introduce you to this fascinating research field. Let the games begin!

How New Zealand is discovering cold planets

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR IAN BOND

More than 3000 planets orbiting other stars have been found. Most of these are warm/hot planets that orbit close to their host stars. Here in New Zealand the technique of gravitational microlensing is used to discover colder planets in more distant orbits. This is the last unexplored realm of exoplanet space but very important in understanding planet formation and even addressing habitability. This lecture will cover how we use microlensing in NZ starting from the first planet discovered by this technique through to the latest results. We will also look at future plans to work with NASA to use microlensing to find planets from space.

Whale strandings: wildly irresponsible or responsible for the wild?

DR KAREN STOCKIN

Despite costly, logistically challenging efforts to rescue live whales during a stranding, there remains a disconcerting lack of data on survivorship and welfare assessment, including the impacts of human manipulation and the fate of rescued individuals. Karen talks about a record breaking 600 whale stranding event in Feb 2017, and the social, ethical and animal welfare issues surrounding rescue attempts. She offers considerations for future discourse, research and practice in the broader context of conservation welfare.

Take a deep breath and don’t miss a beat: the benefits of mathematical modelling

ALONA BEN TAL, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Mathematical modelling has a long history of providing useful insights to physiological processes. Associate Professor Alona Ben-Tal outlined in this lecture the benefits of deep-slow breathing, the weird and wonderful way birds breathe, and how mathematical modelling can help us treat heart disease. Alona uses mathematics to understand breathing and heart rate control and finds her work surprising and fascinating.

Evolution of life's complexity

DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR PAUL RAINEY

There is a common misconception that humans are the pinnacle of evolution and life’s complexity, that we are somehow the natural destination of the evolutionary process. However, Charles Darwin came up with the idea that life can be explained by a simple algorithmic process - natural selection. Natural selection is the most important idea the world has ever been presented with. In this talk, Paul will discuss how natural selection helps to explain biological complexities of the evolutionary process and life as we know it.

Fifty shades of display: solving the bird colour problem

PROFESSOR JIM DALE, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Birds display an astonishing diversity of plumage colours.  The brilliant and striking coloration of their feathers have inspired and fascinated us, and to this day continue to puzzle us. Indeed, even measuring how colourful birds are is challenging because colour is a complex, multi-dimensional trait that is seen differently by the birds compared to us.

In this talk Jim described the problem of colourfulness in birds - how to measure it and why both males and females have it in so many different species.

Gems of Ramanujan and their Lasting Impact on Mathematics

Ken Ono (Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Mathematics at Emory University and incoming Maclaurin Lecturer 2017)

Mathematician Ramanujan's work has has a truly transformative effect on modern mathematics, and continues to do so as we understand further lines from his letters and notebooks.

In this lecture, some of the studies of Ramanujan that are most accessible to the general public will be presented and how Ramanujan's findings fundamentally changed modern mathematics. We will also discuss the influences on his work.

The speaker is associate producer of the film The Man Who Knew Infinity (starring Dev Patel and Jeremy Irons) about Ramanujan.

The holy grail: new porous materials with beautiful structures and unparalleled functions

Professor Shane Telfer

Porous materials have fascinated humankind since the Greeks discovered zeolites: stones that could give off water. Of late, a new class of porous crystals has been discovered. Known as metal-organic frameworks, they have beautiful architectures that can be tuned at the molecular dimension. The structures and applications of these materials is only limited by the imagination. Can they be used to sequester CO2 directly from air? Is the targeted delivery of bioactive payloads in the human body possible? Find out what we know, and what we hope to find out, about these fascinating materials.

Serendipity and the discovery of new protein chemistry from the microbial world

Ted Baker (Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery and the School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland)

The advent of genome sequencing, some 20 years ago, brought a vast array of new data, but also indicated how much is still unknown about the natural world.

In this talk Ted Baker described some of the unexpected findings, and potential new applications, that can come from exploring some of the “unknown” proteins encoded in genome sequences.

By targeting genes for proteins predicted to be displayed on the outside surfaces of bacteria, his team discovered bonds that form spontaneously when the host proteins fold up, and can now be used as a molecular “super-glue” to join proteins together for applications in biotechnology.

The microbiome: how the legions of micro organisms within you are affecting your health

David Relman (Thomas C. and Joan M Merigan Professor and Professor of Microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine) 

The diversity and intimacy of our relationships with the microbes and viruses that live in and on our body is nothing short of breathtaking. Recent findings raise questions about how these relationships get started early in life, the ways in which they contribute to human health, and how these relationships are maintained in the face of disturbance, especially the major disturbances produced by modern health care and lifestyle.

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Can we teach lasers how to perform brain-inspired information processing?

Professor Ingo Fischer
Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems, Palma, Spain

This lecture examined brain-inspired information processing. What if we could create learning-based brain-inspired information processing concepts by using light? With a minimal design approach and components that are usually the backbone of our global communication networks (such as a simple semiconductor laser and some optical fibre), powerful computing can be achieved.

Special snowflakes

DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR GAVEN MARTIN

Fractals and fractal structures are ubiquitous in nature where small scale symmetries are repeated at ever larger scales or large scale symmetries repeated at ever finer detail – we can see this in snowflakes and in the Mandelbrot set.

The remarkable fractal Lorenz Butterfly (the butterfly effect) arising from simple models of weather predictions shows fractal structures naturally arising in chaotic systems.

New marine discoveries at the Kermadec Islands

Dr Libby Liggins (Massey University) and Dr.Tom Trnski (Auckland Museum)

Typically, the biodiversity of the marine environments surrounding islands is less-studied. However, our recent expeditions to the remote Kermadec Islands have exponentially increased our knowledge of  marine biodiversity. This highlights the scientific and conservation importance of this region.

Dr Liggins and Dr Trnski have dived and explored the Kermadec islands and shared some secrets of the intriguing marine biodiversity from this special place. They will talk about their expeditions and highlight recent discoveries.

Gravitational waves: listening in to the sounds of the universe

Professor Joachim Brand

This lecture examined how the detection of gravitational waves resembles listening more than seeing and how the merging of two black holes was 'heard', a discovery that most likely could never have been made with conventional telescopes.

Joachim also looked at the amazing technology of laser interferometry that made this detection possible, and the development of quantum technologies that will make future detectors even more sensitive.

 

 
Antibiotic resistance: how did this happen and what happens next?

DR HEATHER HENDRICKSON, MASSEY UNIVERSITY

Antibiotics save countless lives every year, but like an ageing title-fighter, their punch weakens over time.

Dr Heather Hendrickson presented a lecture on what we might do when the antibiotic-era comes to an end and who the next contender will be.

Why is the universe left-handed?

Professor Peter Schwerdtfeger, Massey university

Single-handedness is present in everything, down to the tiniest molecule. This was startling to 20th Century scientists, who until then presumed the
world was symmetrical. We now know right-handed sugars and left-handed amino acids completely dominate the biochemistry of living organisms.


But if our universe is left-handed, why are humans predominantly right-handed? Even though our hearts are on the left? What is responsible for this leaning toward one side or the other?

Bird brains

Professor Dianne Brunton, Massey university

Bird song has been enthralling humans for millennia. With urban sprawl scientists have seen how complex song can be affected by environment and how birds adapt and change.


We are discovering that these delightful creatures have a highly complex system of communication that involves many more of their senses. Find out what we know about bird brains, how and why they sing and how their anatomical structure and brain affects their ability to communicate.


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